enerMET

Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate change in the deep past

a reprint from phys.org, 2018-07-02

https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/gfx/news/hires/2018/climate.jpgGreenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.

Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing ocean circulation patterns. Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of carbon dioxide were to blame.

If the cooling had been caused by changes in ocean circulation, regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of greenhouse gases would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.

The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar temperature we reconstructed can only be explained by greenhouse gas forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term climate change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."

Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.

The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.

"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."

The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?

"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.

As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast. Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp
Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.

Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of were to blame.
If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar we reconstructed can only be explained by forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."
Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.
The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.
"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."
The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?
"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.
As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp
Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.

Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of were to blame.
If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar we reconstructed can only be explained by forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."
Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.
The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.
"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."
The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?
"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.
As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp
Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.

Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of were to blame.
If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar we reconstructed can only be explained by forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."
Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.
The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.
"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."
The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?
"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.
As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp
Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.

Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of were to blame.
If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar we reconstructed can only be explained by forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."
Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.
The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.
"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."
The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?
"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.
As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp
Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.

Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of were to blame.
If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar we reconstructed can only be explained by forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."
Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.
The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.
"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."
The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?
"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.
As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp

Can the solar industry survive without subsidies?

a reprint from the economist, 2018-06-25

A LITTLE over a decade ago, when JinkoSolar, a Shanghai-based company, entered the solar business, it was such a novice that when it visited international trade fairs, all it had was a bare table and a board with its name scribbled on it. But it also had luck, a technological edge and lots of public money on its side.

The industry globally was riding high on subsidies. Generous feed-in-tariffs (FITs), financial incentives for installing solar, made Germany the world’s largest solar market by around 2010. Germans turned to China for cheap sources of crystalline silicon solar panels, not least because subsidised land and loans enabled China’s fledgling manufacturers to undercut European and American competitors.

When European solar subsidies slumped during the euro crisis, the Chinese government once again stepped in to support its renewable-energy champions. It offered FITs to slather the remote west of China with solar farms. By 2013 China had eclipsed Germany as the world’s largest solar-panel market; last year it installed 53 gigawatts (GW), almost five times as much as in America, now the next-biggest market. Jinko became the world’s largest provider of solar panels in 2016, shipping almost 10GW globally last year. Six of the top ten producers are Chinese.
These ups and downs are known globally as the “solarcoaster”: just as subsidies can quickly build the market up, their withdrawal can tear it down. On June 1st this happened with a particularly heart-stopping lurch when Chinese authorities, with almost no notice, strictly limited new solar installations that qualified for FITs, blitzing the shares of Jinko and some of its peers in China, as well as of First Solar, one of America’s biggest solar suppliers.
Analysts reckon that at least 20GW of solar projects expected to be built in China this year will now be scrapped (see chart). As demand wilts, they predict, Chinese panel prices will fall by at least a third. Benjamin Attia of Wood Mackenzie, an energy consultancy, says that, depending on how quickly the price falls encourage an uptake of solar in new markets, this could be the first year since 2000 that the global solar industry stalls. “In the short term, the policy change will rack the China market with angst,” says an industry insider there. continue reading...
 

Commentary: Offshore wind and hydrogen for industry in Europe

a reprint from IEA, 2018-06-16

Fossil fuels currently play a critical role in industry, not only as sources of energy, but also of feedstocks and process agents. Clean electricity could provide a sustainable alternative, but hurdles remain – particularly in terms of costs.

In Northern Europe, offshore wind is showing potential to provide significant amounts of clean power to industry, with generation costs possibly falling to the range of €55 to € 70/MWh.



This increasingly affordable renewable electricity strengthens the potential for cost-effective replacement of fossil fuels by electricity in industry. However, the continuing cost gap with the direct use of gas or coal to generate heat limits this potential to those electric technologies that are at least twice as efficient as fossil fuel uses. For now, a complete shift would require carbon prices at levels up to € 150 per tonne, a level even higher than projected for 2040 in the World Energy Outlook Sustainable Development Scenario (SDS).
Another realistic first step towards accelerating sustainable energy in industry involves hydrogen produced from clean power via electrolysis from water, directly substituting for hydrogen produced from fossil fuels. Hydrogen is already used in refineries to make oil products cleaner, and in the chemical industry to produce methanol and ammonia, a basic constituent of nitrogen fertilisers. It could also potentially be used in steel making to sharply reduce CO2 emissions. Moreover, storable and transportable chemicals and fuels incorporating renewable-based hydrogen (significantly easier to ship and store than diatomic hydrogen) may be imported from areas with better renewable resources, also at lower costs.
Today, hydrogen production in Europe is mostly based on natural gas reforming, but this results in significant CO2 emissions. Emissions could be reduced by using carbon capture and storage, at lower costs than from electrolysis run on power from offshore wind (unless future gas prices exceed expectations). Continue reading...



Leaked UN draft report warns of urgent need to cut global warming

a reprint from The Guardian, 2018-06-16

The world is on track to exceed 1.5C of warming unless countries rapidly implement “far-reaching” actions to reduce carbon emissions, according to a draft UN report leaked to Reuters.
The final draft report from the UN’s intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) was due for publication in October. It is the guiding scientific document for what countries must do to combat climate change.
Human-induced warming would exceed 1.5C by about 2040 if emissions continued at their present rate, the report found, but countries could keep warming below that level if they made “rapid and far-reaching” changes.

A polar bear in the Canadian Arctic archipelagoUnder the 2015 Paris climate agreement, almost 200 countries signed up to limit global temperature rises to well below 2C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5C.

Climate scientist and Climate Analytics director Bill Hare said the draft report showed with greater clarity how much faster countries needed to move towards decarbonisation under various temperature situations and that the impacts of climate change greatly increased between 1.5C and 2C of warming.

Necessary actions include making the transition to renewable energy, powering the transport sector with zero carbon electricity, improving agricultural management and stopping deforestation.

“This IPCC report shows anyone drawing from published papers that there are big differences between 1.5 and 2 degrees warming in both natural and human systems,” Hare said. “Two degrees warming and the tropical reefs have basically no chance – 1.5 degrees, they have a small to modest chance of survival. continue reading...

Strompreise: Macht deutscher Strom aus Erneuerbaren wirklich unsere Wasserkraft kaputt?

a reprint from ee-news

Unsere Wasserkraft spielt in einer Vollversorgung mit Erneuerbaren eine wichtige Rolle. Daher werden wir hellhörig, wenn wir Pauschalurteile hören, wie dass die Förderung der Erneuerbaren in Deutschland unsere Wasserkraft kaputt mache. Ein Versuch, Licht in das Verwirrspiel zu bringen, auch mit einem Interview mit Felix Nipkow der SES.

2017 wurde in der Europäischen Union erstmals mehr Strom aus Wind, Sonne und Biomasse produziert als aus Stein- und Braunkohle zusammen. Die Stromerzeugung aus diesen erneuer-baren Energien wuchs im Vergleich zum Vorjahr um 12 Prozent und erreichte damit einen Anteil von 30 Prozent am Strommix (siehe ee-news.ch vom 1.2.18 >>). Die Ergebnisse der neuen Solar- und Windkraftausschreibungen in Deutschland zeigen, dass erneuerbarer Strom immer günstiger wird: Für Windstrom wurde durchschnittlich 4.73 Cent/kWh und für Solarstrom 4.33 Cent/kWh geboten. Die rasanten Preissenkungen dieser Technologien, angestossen durch das deutsche Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz, übertrafen sämtliche Prognosen der Branchenverbände.

Festhalten an der Grosskraftwerk-Strategie

Anfangs der 2000er Jahre wurde sowohl in Deutschland und insbesondere auch in der Schweiz das Potenzial von Sonne- und Windenergie gerne kleingeredet. Die traditionellen Energiever-sorger mit ihren Grosskraftwerken von Atom- über Stein- bis hin zu Braunkohlekraftwerken –, aber auch die Grosswasserkraft wollten nicht vorhersehen, dass viele kleinere dezentrale Kraftwerke einmal so wichtig werden könnten. Noch heute gibt es wichtige Stimmen – auch in der Schweiz – die an der Grosskraftwerk-Strategie auf Teufel komm raus festhalten möchten. Was aus ihrer Warte zum Teil auch verständlich ist: Denn die Unternehmen sind sich gewohnt in grossen Einheiten zu planen. Dass indes auch Kleinvieh ganz ordentlich Mist macht, zeigen die oben genannten Zahlen aus der EU.... weiterlesen

Engie Deutschland: Kombiniert 11.5 MW Batteriespeicher mit Pumpspeicher-Wasserkraft

a reprint from ee-news

Sowohl Batteriespeicher wie moderne Pumpspeicherwerke können innerhalt von 30 Sekunden Primärregelenergie liefern. Engie Deutschland beide Speichertypen kombiniert und auf dem Gelände der Kraftwerksgruppe Pfreimd in der deutschen Oberpfalz einen 12.5 MW Lithium-Ionen-Speicher in Betrieb genommen.

Der Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien an der Bruttostromerzeugung liegt mit 43 Prozent in Bayern weit über dem Bundesdurchschnitt. Neue Technologien wie der Grossbatteriespeicher mit kurzen Reaktionszeiten ergänzen die bewährten Technologien und sind ein wichtiger Baustein für das Stromsystem der Zukunft. Der dezentrale Batteriespeicher ergänzt die bestehende Anlage des Pumpspeicherkraftwerks, das bereits heute rund fünf Prozent der Regelenergie für das deutsche Netz bzw. ein Prozent für das westeuropäische Übertragungsnetz liefert. Über ein Pooling beider Anlagen sorgt Engie für die nötige Besicherung der Regelenergiekapazitäten.

180 Schränke verteilt auf die vier Batteriecontainer

Zentraler Bestandteil des Batteriespeichers sind Lithium-Ionen-Zellen. Durch 39‘600 in Reihe und parallel geschaltete Batterien wird chemische in elektrische Energie umgewandelt und umgekehrt. Die Batterien sind in 180 Schränken mit einer Kapazität von jeweils 76 Kilowattstunden zusammengefasst, verteilt auf die vier Batteriecontainer. Ein weiterer Container enthält den Frequenzumrichter zur Wandlung von Gleichstrom in Wechselstrom und umgekehrt, und die sogenannte Schaltanlage. Die Netzanbindung erfolgt über drei 20-Kilovolt-Transformatoren und speist in das Netz der Bayernwerke AG ein. Das schlüsselfertige Batteriespeichersystem vom Typ Siestorage wurde von der Siemens AG geliefert. Zum Lieferumfang gehört auch das Steuerungssystem des Batteriespeichersystems, welches direkt an das Leitsystem der Kraftwerksgruppe Pfreimd angeschlossen wurde.

Energie Zürich löst 2000 Watt Regionen CH als Plattform ab

Per 01.06.2018 ersetzt Energie Zürich die bisherige Plattform 2000 Watt Regionen CH: https://www.xing.com/communities/groups/energie-zuerich-863b-1084155. Primäres Ziel ist und bleibt die Vernetzung von Akteuren im Bereich Nachhaltigen Energiemanagements sowie die zeitnahe Publizierung energierelevanter Themen. Desweiteren wird diese Plattform auch genutzt um die Erfolge des Teams Energiemanagement Immobilien Stadt Zürich der breiteren Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen: https://www.stadt-zuerich.ch/hbd/de/index/immobilien-bewirtschaftung/eigentuemervertretung/betriebsoptimierung.html.