enerMET

enerMET v1.3.8 (beta): released

2018-10-19

Renewable energy, its useful and sustainable supply and consumption pose a significant challenge. Many stakeholders and as many interests are involved. Inconsistent approaches need to be aligned. The web-based application enerMET seeks to foster the integration of renewable energy in populated areas by providing comprehensive and concise information by analysing relevant data sources. In the present release of enerMET (version 1.3.8beta, visit: http://enerMET-data.blogspot.ch) a new extension jSOLAR.js has been included. It represents a very useful GIS-Add-on to enerMET linking present weather data (weather data are updated in intervals of 10') and geographical energy information. This new extension draws on a development by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE): http://www.sonnendach.ch. In the current release of enerMET the extension jSOLAR.js covers Switzerland.

Along with the implementation of the new extension various minor adjustments have been made in order to make enerMET more user friendly. In addition, the help documentation was expanded.


Schweizer Bundesrat startet Vernehmlassung zur Revision des Stromversorgungsgesetzes

a reprint from Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft, 2018-10-17

Seit 2008 hat sich der Strommarkt stark verändert. Getrieben wird diese Entwicklung vom technologischen Fortschritt bei der erneuerbaren Stromproduktion und den digitalen Technologien, der Preisentwicklung der fossilen Energien und des CO2 sowie von neuen energie- und klimapolitischen Zielen der Schweiz und ihrer europäischen Nachbarn. Der Bundesrat hat vor diesem Hintergrund entschieden, für den Schweizer Strommarkt neue Rahmenbedingungen zu schaffen. Er hat an seiner Sitzung vom 17. Oktober 2018 dazu die Revision des Stromversorgungsgesetzes (StromVG) in die Vernehmlassung gegeben. Im Zentrum stehen die Versorgungssicherheit, ein effizient funktionierender, offener Markt sowie neue Netzregulierungen, die den Ausbau der dezentralen, erneuerbaren Stromproduktion unterstützen sollen. Die Vernehmlassung dauert bis am 31. Januar 2019.

Der Strommarkt verändert sich stark. Das beeinflusst das komplexe Zusammenspiel zwischen Stromproduktion, Stromhandel, Stromverteilung und Stromverbrauch. Mit dem Energiegesetz, das die Stimmbevölkerung im Mai 2017 gutgeheissen hat, wurde ein erstes Massnahmenpaket beschlossen, um dem sich wandelnden Umfeld gerecht zu werden. Es enthält neben dem Verbot des Baus neuer Kernkraftwerke Massnahmen, um den Energieverbrauch zu senken, die Energieeffizienz zu erhöhen sowie die Produktion aus erneuerbaren Energien zu stärken. Zur Modernisierung des Stromnetzes hat das Parlament ebenfalls gesetzliche Änderungen beschlossen (Strategie Stromnetze). Diese treten voraussichtlich im zweiten Quartal 2019 in Kraft. Für die Zeit nach 2025 soll zudem ein flexibles Wasserzinsmodell eingeführt werden, das der Marktentwicklung besser Rechnung trägt. Ergänzend kommt nun ein Paket von Massnahmen hinzu, um auch die Rahmenbedingungen für den Schweizer Strommarkt an die Marktentwicklungen anzupassen.
Die wichtigsten Eckpunkte sind:

Vollständige Öffnung des Strommarkts: Sie wurde vom Parlament bereits im geltenden StromVG beschlossen, bisher aber nicht umgesetzt. Heute werden schon fünf Sechstel des gesamten Stromvolumens der Schweiz auf dem freien Markt beschafft. Über 99% der Endverbraucher, kleine Konsumenten und Betriebe, sind jedoch in der Grundversorgung gefangen. Sie sollen künftig in den freien Markt wechseln können und von dort auch wieder zurück in die regulierte Grundversorgung. So können sie durch ihre Entscheidungen – die Wahl ihres Stromlieferanten oder ihres Stromprodukts, ihre Entscheidung für Eigenproduktion oder die Nutzung ihrer Flexibilität beim Stromverbrauch – die für sich attraktivste Art der Versorgung wählen. Sie beeinflussen so auch die weitere Entwicklung der Stromversorgung. Dadurch werden sich innovative Produkte, Dienstleistungen und die Digitalisierung rascher durchsetzen können. Ein offener Strommarkt ist zudem eine wichtige Voraussetzung für die weitere Verbreitung der Sektorkopplung, das heisst der optimal koordinierten Nutzung der leitungsgebundenen Energieträger wie beispielsweise Power-to-Gas, Wärmekraftkopplung oder Elektromobilität. Weiterlesen...

CH2018: Neue Klimaszenarien für die Schweiz

a reprint from Naturwissenschaften Schweiz, 2018-10-17

Ein Rückblick auf das erste schweizweite NCCS Forum, ein Ausblick auf die Lancierung der neuen Schweizer CH2018 Klimaszenarien und das NCCS als Film einfach erklärt.

Das erste NCCS Forum: Ein Rückblick

Am 5. Dezember 2017 stellte das National Centre for Climate Services (NCCS) – das Netzwerk des Bundes für Klimadienstleistungen – sich und seine Aufgaben und Aktivitäten in seinem ersten Forum in Bern vor. Ziel des schweizweiten Anlasses war es, eine Schnittstelle für den Dialog zwischen Produzentinnen und Produzenten und Nutzenden von Klimadienstleistungen zu schaffen, dadurch zu vernetzen sowie interaktiv Ideen und Bedürfnisse auszutauschen.
Nach einem Einstieg in die Klimadienstleistungs-Thematik und einer Präsentation zum NCCS berichteten drei Nutzerinnen und Nutzer, warum und wofür sie für ihre Arbeit Klimadienstleistungen benötigen: Die Finanzexpertin Sabine Döbeli von Swiss Sustainable Finance legte die Relevanz von Klimarisiken für das Finanzgeschäft dar. Der Stadtplaner Lionel Tudisco stellte die raumplanerischen Aktivitäten der Stadt Sion im Zusammenhang mit der Problematik der städtischen Hitzeinsel vor und Pierre Lambert, Eigentümer des Weinguts «Domaine des Coccinelles», zeigte die Einflüsse des Klimawandels auf den Weinanbau auf. In einer informellen Poster- und Kaffee-Session informierten die Mitglieder und Partner des NCCS über den Stand und die Tätigkeiten in den derzeit laufenden Themenschwerpunkten des NCCS. Diese reichen von den Klimaszenarien CH2018 über Schadorganismenszenarien für die Landwirtschaft, den Umgang mit Starkniederschlagsereignissen bis hin zur Tiergesundheit.
In einem World Café wurden Ideen in Gruppen ausgetauscht sowie Nutzerbedürfnisse und der Vernetzungsbedarf eruiert. So wurde unter anderem festgehalten, dass das Verständnis von Klimadienstleistungen noch nicht abgestimmt ist, eine vermehrte Nutzung der sozialen Medien und Durchführung von fachspezifischen Anlässen gewünscht ist. Als weiteres Beispiel besteht auf kantonaler und kommunaler Ebene Bedarf nach guten Praxisbeispielen, Handlungsanleitungen und Orientierungshilfen; in Bezug auf Kooperationen und Netzwerke wurde die Bedeutung des persönlichen Kontakts, der Bündelung der Informationen und die Dialogförderung hervorgehoben. All diese und weitere Erkenntnisse werden in die zukünftige Arbeit des NCCS aufgenommen und in der Strategie reflektiert. Mehr als 150 Personen aus den Reihen der nationalen, kantonalen und kommunalen Verwaltung, Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft, Politik und Nichtregierungsorganisationen nahmen am erstmalig abgehaltenen NCCS Forum teil. Das zweite NCCS Forum wird auf die neuen CH2018 Klimaszenarien und die NCCS-Webplattform fokussieren und als gemeinsamer Anlass mit der ETH Klimarunde durchgeführt. Weiterlesen..., Anmelden...



Vergesst das Zwei-Grad-Ziel!

a reprint from Zeit.de, 2018-10-15

Naturkatastrophen, Hunger und Kriege werden dramatisch zunehmen, falls die Erde 1,5 Grad wärmer wird als zu vorindustriellen Zeiten. Ist das noch zu verhindern?

Zwei-Grad-Ziel – das klingt, als habe die Welt sich fest vorgenommen, so viele Treibhausgase wie möglich in die Luft zu pusten, damit der Erdball schnell zwei Grad wärmer wird. Genau so handeln die Industriestaaten jedenfalls bisher. Und der Plan scheint aufzugehen. Einen schönen Jahrhundertsommerhatten wir in Deutschland ja dadurch schon mal. Aber genug des Sarkasmus. In Wahrheit ist mit dem Ziel, das 2010 auf der Klimakonferenz in Cancùnfestgeschrieben wurde, natürlich das Gegenteil gemeint: Der CO2-Ausstoß muss dringend weltweit reduziert, die globale Erwärmung aufgehalten werden. Damit die Durchschnittstemperatur auf keinen Fall so stark steigt, dass sie den vorindustriellen Wert um zwei Grad Celsius übertrifft. Eigentlich wären sogar schon 1,5 Grad zu viel, warnen Klimaforscherinnen und Klimaforscher seit Langem. Und da es bereits ein Grad wärmer ist, bleibt gerade mal ein halbes Grad bis zum Ende des Jahrhunderts. Weiterlesen...

Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate change in the deep past

a reprint from phys.org, 2018-07-02

https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/gfx/news/hires/2018/climate.jpgGreenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.

Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing ocean circulation patterns. Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of carbon dioxide were to blame.

If the cooling had been caused by changes in ocean circulation, regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of greenhouse gases would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.

The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar temperature we reconstructed can only be explained by greenhouse gas forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term climate change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."

Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.

The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.

"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."

The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?

"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.

As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast. Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp
Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.


Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of were to blame.
If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar we reconstructed can only be explained by forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."
Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.
The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.
"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."
The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?
"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.
As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp
Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.


Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of were to blame.
If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar we reconstructed can only be explained by forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."
Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.
The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.
"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."
The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?
"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.
As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp
Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.


Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of were to blame.
If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar we reconstructed can only be explained by forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."
Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.
The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.
"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."
The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?
"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.
As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp
Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.


Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of were to blame.
If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar we reconstructed can only be explained by forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."
Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.
The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.
"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."
The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?
"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.
As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp
Greenhouse gases were the main driver of climate throughout the warmest period of the past 66 million years, providing insight into the drivers behind long-term climate change.


Antarctica and Australia separated around the end of the Eocene (56 to 22.9 million years ago), creating a deep water passage between them and changing . Some researchers believe these changes were the driver of cooling temperatures near the end of the Eocene 'hothouse' period, but some think declining levels of were to blame.
If the cooling had been caused by changes in , regions around the equator would have warmed as the polar regions cooled, shifting the distribution of heat on Earth. But changing the concentration of would affect the total heat trapped in Earth's atmosphere, causing cooling everywhere (including in the tropics), which is what the researchers found. The findings were published in the journal Nature.
The synchronized evolution of tropical and polar we reconstructed can only be explained by forcing," said Margot Cramwinckel, a Ph.D. candidate at Utrecht University in the Netherlands and first author of the paper. "Our findings are uniquely compatible with the hypothesis that the long-term Eocene cooling was driven by greenhouse gasses. This greatly improves our understanding of the drivers behind long-term change, which is important in order to predict the development of future climate change."
Climate change often has more intense effects near the poles than elsewhere on the planet, a phenomenon known as polar amplification.
The study found that temperature change was more dramatic near the poles than in the tropics during the Eocene, even though most of the period was extremely warm, leaving little to no ice near the poles.
"Even in a largely ice-free world, the poles cooled more than the tropics as temperature dropped," Cramwinckel said. "This indicates that greenhouse gas forcing by itself can cause polar amplification."
The researchers had one more question about polar amplification: does it reach some sort of limit?
"Our results support the idea that polar amplification saturates out at some point in warm climates and does not continue to increase with further warming," said Matthew Huber, a professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper.
As a proxy for temperature, the research team looked at membrane lipids of simple, sea-surface dwelling organisms called Thaumarchaeota that change their membrane composition as temperatures change in deep sea sediment cores drilled near the Ivory Coast.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-greenhouse-gases-main-driver-climate.html#jCp

Can the solar industry survive without subsidies?

a reprint from the economist, 2018-06-25

A LITTLE over a decade ago, when JinkoSolar, a Shanghai-based company, entered the solar business, it was such a novice that when it visited international trade fairs, all it had was a bare table and a board with its name scribbled on it. But it also had luck, a technological edge and lots of public money on its side.

The industry globally was riding high on subsidies. Generous feed-in-tariffs (FITs), financial incentives for installing solar, made Germany the world’s largest solar market by around 2010. Germans turned to China for cheap sources of crystalline silicon solar panels, not least because subsidised land and loans enabled China’s fledgling manufacturers to undercut European and American competitors.

When European solar subsidies slumped during the euro crisis, the Chinese government once again stepped in to support its renewable-energy champions. It offered FITs to slather the remote west of China with solar farms. By 2013 China had eclipsed Germany as the world’s largest solar-panel market; last year it installed 53 gigawatts (GW), almost five times as much as in America, now the next-biggest market. Jinko became the world’s largest provider of solar panels in 2016, shipping almost 10GW globally last year. Six of the top ten producers are Chinese.
These ups and downs are known globally as the “solarcoaster”: just as subsidies can quickly build the market up, their withdrawal can tear it down. On June 1st this happened with a particularly heart-stopping lurch when Chinese authorities, with almost no notice, strictly limited new solar installations that qualified for FITs, blitzing the shares of Jinko and some of its peers in China, as well as of First Solar, one of America’s biggest solar suppliers.
Analysts reckon that at least 20GW of solar projects expected to be built in China this year will now be scrapped (see chart). As demand wilts, they predict, Chinese panel prices will fall by at least a third. Benjamin Attia of Wood Mackenzie, an energy consultancy, says that, depending on how quickly the price falls encourage an uptake of solar in new markets, this could be the first year since 2000 that the global solar industry stalls. “In the short term, the policy change will rack the China market with angst,” says an industry insider there. continue reading...
 

Commentary: Offshore wind and hydrogen for industry in Europe

a reprint from IEA, 2018-06-16

Fossil fuels currently play a critical role in industry, not only as sources of energy, but also of feedstocks and process agents. Clean electricity could provide a sustainable alternative, but hurdles remain – particularly in terms of costs.

In Northern Europe, offshore wind is showing potential to provide significant amounts of clean power to industry, with generation costs possibly falling to the range of €55 to € 70/MWh.



This increasingly affordable renewable electricity strengthens the potential for cost-effective replacement of fossil fuels by electricity in industry. However, the continuing cost gap with the direct use of gas or coal to generate heat limits this potential to those electric technologies that are at least twice as efficient as fossil fuel uses. For now, a complete shift would require carbon prices at levels up to € 150 per tonne, a level even higher than projected for 2040 in the World Energy Outlook Sustainable Development Scenario (SDS).
Another realistic first step towards accelerating sustainable energy in industry involves hydrogen produced from clean power via electrolysis from water, directly substituting for hydrogen produced from fossil fuels. Hydrogen is already used in refineries to make oil products cleaner, and in the chemical industry to produce methanol and ammonia, a basic constituent of nitrogen fertilisers. It could also potentially be used in steel making to sharply reduce CO2 emissions. Moreover, storable and transportable chemicals and fuels incorporating renewable-based hydrogen (significantly easier to ship and store than diatomic hydrogen) may be imported from areas with better renewable resources, also at lower costs.
Today, hydrogen production in Europe is mostly based on natural gas reforming, but this results in significant CO2 emissions. Emissions could be reduced by using carbon capture and storage, at lower costs than from electrolysis run on power from offshore wind (unless future gas prices exceed expectations). Continue reading...